World after 50 years

Breakfast for one billion people.

World after 50 years

The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. The — outbreak in West Africa involved major urban areas as well as rural ones.

Community engagement is key to successfully controlling outbreaks. Good outbreak control relies on applying a package of interventions, namely case management, infection prevention and control practices, surveillance and contact tracing, a good laboratory service, safe and dignified burials and social mobilisation.

Early supportive care with rehydration, symptomatic treatment improves survival. There is as yet no licensed treatment proven to neutralize the virus but World after 50 years range of blood, immunological and drug therapies are under development.

Background The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name. The — outbreak in West Africa was the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak since the virus was first discovered in There were more cases and deaths in this outbreak than all others combined.

It also spread between countries, starting in Guinea then moving across land borders to Sierra Leone and Liberia.

World after 50 years

The virus family Filoviridae includes three genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus. Within the genus Ebolavirus, five species have been identified: The first three, Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Zaire ebolavirus, and Sudan ebolavirus have been associated with large outbreaks in Africa.

The virus causing the — West African outbreak belongs to the Zaire ebolavirus species. Transmission It is thought that fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are natural Ebola virus hosts. Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found ill or dead or in the rainforest.

Ebola then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and with surfaces and materials e.

Health-care workers have frequently been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed EVD. This has occurred through close contact with patients when infection control precautions are not strictly practiced. Burial ceremonies that involve direct contact with the body of the deceased can also contribute in the transmission of Ebola.

People remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus. Sexual transmission More surveillance data and research are needed on the risks of sexual transmission, and particularly on the prevalence of viable and transmissible virus in semen over time.

In the interim, and based on present evidence, WHO recommends that: All Ebola survivors and their sexual partners should receive counselling to ensure safe sexual practices until their semen has twice tested negative.

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As many of the essays in 50 Years From Today: 60 of the World's Greatest Minds Share Their Vision of the Next Half Century speculate upon, the next half-century will see major advances in the fields of medicine, transportation, and everyday life.

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