New Education[ edit ] A view of Athens from the Temple of Olympian Zeus to Mount Lycabettus Old Education in classical Athens consisted of two major parts — intellectual and physical, or what was known to Athenians as "gumnastike" and "mousike. Boys would begin physical education either during or just after beginning their elementary education. Initially, they would learn from a private teacher known as a paidotribe.
Western education in the 19th century The social and historical setting From the midth century to the closing years of the 18th century, new social, economic, and intellectual forces steadily quickened—forces that in the late 18th and the 19th centuries would weaken and, in many cases, end the old aristocratic absolutism.
The European expansion to new worlds overseas had stimulated commercial rivalry. The new trade had increased national wealth and encouraged a sharp rise in the numbers and influence of the middle classes. These social and economic transformations—joined with technological changes involving the steam engine and the factory system —together produced industrialism, urbanizationand the beginnings of mass labour.
At the same time, intellectuals and philosophers were assaulting economic abuses, old unjust privileges, misgovernment, and intolerance. Their ideas, which carried a new emphasis on the worth of the individual—the citizen rather than the subject—helped to inspire political revolutions, sometimes successful, sometimes unsuccessful.
But, more importantly, they worked to make it impossible for any government—even the most reactionary—to disregard for long the welfare of common people. Finally, there was a widespread psychological change: All these trends influenced the progress of education.
One of the most significant results was the gradual acceptance of the view that education ought to be the responsibility of the state.
Some countries, such as France and Germany, were inspired by a mixture of national aspiration and ideology to begin the establishment of public educational systems early in the 19th century.
Others, such as Great Britain and the United Statesunder the spell of laissez-fairehesitated longer before allowing the government to intervene in educational affairs. The new social and economic changes also called upon the schools, public and private, to broaden their aims and curricula.
Schools were expected not only to promote literacymental disciplineand good moral character but also to help prepare children for citizenshipfor jobs, and for individual development and success. Although teaching methods remained oriented toward textbook memorizing and strict discipline, a more sympathetic attitude toward children began to appear.
The monitorial systemalso called the Lancastrian system, became popular because, in the effort to overcome the shortage of teachers during the quick expansion of education, it enabled one teacher to use older children to act as monitors in teaching specific lessons to younger children in groups.
Similarly, the practice of dividing children into grades or classes according to their ages—a practice that began in 18th-century Germany—was to spread everywhere as schools grew larger.
The early reform movement: The influence of Jean-Jacques Rousseau was profound and inestimable. Rousseauist ideas are seen also in the work of Friedrich Froebelwho emphasized self-activity as the central feature of childhood education, and in that of Johann Friedrich Herbartperhaps the most influential 19th-century thinker in the development of pedagogy as a science.
A few years later the enterprise failed, and Pestalozzi turned to writingproducing his chief work on method, How Gertrude Teaches Her Children, inand then began teaching again. Finally in he founded at Yverdon his famous boarding school, which flourished for 20 years, was attended by students from every country in Europeand was visited by many important figures of the time, including the philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichtethe educators Froebel and Herbart, and the geographer Carl Ritter.
The pedagogy of Pestalozzi In spite of the quantity of his writings, it cannot be said that Pestalozzi ever wrote a complete and systematic account of his principles and methods; an outline of his theories must be deduced from his various writings and his work.
Education should be literally a drawing-out of this self-power, a development of abilities through activity—in the physical field by encouraging manual work and exercises, in the moral field by stimulating the habit of moral actions, and in the intellectual field by eliciting the correct use of the senses in observing concrete things accurately and making judgments upon them.
Words, ideas, practices, and morals have meaning only when related to concrete things. From these overarching principles there followed certain practical rules of educational method.
First, experience must precede symbolism. There must be an emphasis on object lessons that acquaint the child with the realities of life; from these lessons abstract thought is developed. What one does is a means to what one knows.
This means that the program should be child-centred, not subject-centred. The teacher is to offer help by participating with the child in his activities and should strive to know the nature of the child in order to determine the details of his education.
This means that the stages of education must be related to the stages of child development. Finally, intellectual, moral, and physical activities should be as one. Thus, there was a strong emphasis on education in the home. The development of skills was emphasized not for their own sake but in connection with moral growth.
Manual training was important for the head and heart, as well as for the hand. This was social reform, not social revolution. Through his philanthropic efforts on behalf of the poor, he advanced pedagogical theory and practice in three pivotal ways: Pestalozzi, like few others at any time, recognized and sincerely tried to alter the misery existing in the world.
His influence was most profound in Germany, especially in Prussia and Saxony.a. A town, city, or village, along with it's surrounding countryside.
The city controls the countryside. The main city or town served as a central meeting point for social, political, and religious events. Women's rights activism in Canada during the 19th and early 20th centuries focused on increasing women's role in public life, with goals including women's suffrage, increased property rights, increased access to education, and recognition of women as "persons" under the law.
In her introduction to Women in Ancient Greece Sue Blundell notes how few overviews have appeared among the plethora of books and articles on women's lives and representations in the ancient Greek world Her book is an admirable response to the need for such an regardbouddhiste.coms: Education in Ancient Greece was vastly "democratized" in the 5th century BCE, influenced by the Sophists, Plato and Isocrates.
Later, in the Hellenistic period of Ancient Greece, education in a gymnasium school was considered essential for participation in Greek culture. Although ancient Greek Society was dominated by the male citizen, with his full legal status, right to vote, hold public office, and own property, the social groups which made up the population of a typical Greek city-state or polis were remarkably diverse.
During the years of political crisis a major cultural transformation merged Roman ways with the Greek and Hellenistic heritage. Intellectual life did not match the vibrancy of Athens, but Romans developed their own strengths while carrying forward the Greek heritage.
34)The Range of Roman Art.