Shoel Rana In recent years there have been rapid development in the retail industry. Indeed, there have been radical changes taking place in the traditional idea of shopping. This is evident as there is a gradual shift towards retailers providing a complete range of goods under one of roof catering to daily needs accompanied by a wide array of facilities ranging from car parks, air- conditioning and escalators. Keen amid competition from every form of retailers.
However, not all societies developed a system of markets. A vast array of goods were traded including: Archaeological evidence suggests that Bronze Age traders segmented trade routes according to geographical circuits.
The bazaar at Tabriz, for example, stretches along 1. The market was surrounded by alleyways inhabited by skilled artisans, such as metal-workers, leather workers and carpenters. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but also prepared goods for sale on market days.
A freestanding colonnade with a covered walkway, the stoa was both a place of commerce and a public promenade, situated within or adjacent to the agora. The rocky and mountainous terrain in Greece made it difficult for producers to transport goods or surpluses to local markets, giving rise to a specialised type of retailer kapeloi who operated as an intermediary purchasing produce from farmers and transporting it over short distances to the city markets.
The Roman forum was arguably the earliest example of a permanent retail shopfront. In the Roman world, the central market primarily served the local peasantry. Market stall holders were primarily local primary producers who sold small surpluses from their individual farming activities and also artisans who sold leather-goods, metal-ware and pottery.
Consumers were made up of several different groups; farmers who purchased minor farm equipment and a few luxuries for their homes and urban dwellers who purchased basic necessities.
The very wealthy landowners managed their own distribution, which may have involved importing and exporting.
The nature of export markets in antiquity is well documented in ancient sources and archaeological case studies. A long narrow building at the north-west corner of the Forum was some type of market, possibly a cereal market. On the opposite corner stood the macellumthought to have been a meat and fish market.
Market stall-holders paid a market tax for the right to trade on market days. Some archaeological evidence suggests that markets and street vendors were controlled by local government.
Priories and aristocratic manorial households created considerable demand for goods and services - both luxuries and necessities and also afforded some protection to merchants and traders.
These centres of trade attracted sellers which would stimulate the growth of the town. The Domesday Book of lists 50 markets in England, however, many historians believe this figure underestimates the actual number of markets in operation at the time.
In England, some 2, new markets were established between and Once a chartered market was granted for specific market days, a nearby rival market could not open on the same days.
Loggia del Pesce, Florence, formerly part of the Loggia del Mercato Vecchio just prior to its demolition in A pattern of market trading using mobile stalls under covered arcades was probably established in Italy with the open loggias of Mercato Nuovo designed and constructed by Giovanni Battista del Tasso and funded by the Medici family ; Mercato Vecchio, Florence designed by Giorgio Vasari and Loggia del Grano by architect, Giulio Parigi.
Their investigation shows that in regional districts markets were held once or twice a week while daily markets were common in larger cities. Over time, permanent shops began opening daily and gradually supplanted the periodic markets, while peddlers or itinerant sellers continued to fill in any gaps in distribution.
During the Middle ages, the physical market was characterised by transactional exchange. Shops had higher overhead costs, but were able to offer regular trading hours and a relationship with customers and may have offered added value services, such as credit terms to reliable customers.
The economy was primarily characterised by local trading in which goods were traded across relatively short distances. Beach markets, which were known in north-western Europe, during the Viking period, were primarily associated with the sale of fish. The historian, Braudel, reports that, ingrain moved just 5—10 miles; cattle 40—70 miles; wool and wollen cloth 20—40 miles.
However, following the European age of discovery, goods were imported from afar - calico cloth from India, porcelain, silk and tea from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar, rum and coffee from the New World.
Such considerations informed decisions about where to make purchases and which markets to patronise. In response to competitive pressures, towns invested in developing a reputation for quality produce, efficient market regulation and good amenities for visitors such as covered accommodation.
By the thirteenth century, counties with important textile industries were investing in purpose built halls for the sale of cloth. In medieval society, regulations for such matters appeared initially at the local level. The Charter of Worcester, written between and provided for fines for dishonest trading, amongst other things.
This document outlines the Assizes for 16 different trades, most of which were associated with markets - miller, baker, fisher, brewer, inn-keeper, tallow-chandler, weaver, cordwainer etc.
For each trade, regulations covered such issues as fraud, prices, quality, weights and measures and so on. The assize was a formal codification of prior informal codes which had been practised for many years. The courts of assize were granted the power to enforce these regulations.
The process of standardizing quality, prices and measures assisted markets to gain the confidence of buyers and made them more attractive to the public. In this way, markets helped to provide an early form of product branding.King of Digital Marketing is fully Digital Marketing Services Company in Delhi India provides SEO Services, SMO Services, PPC Services and Digital Marketing course in Delhi by certified trainers.
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