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Rochester Institute of Technology This paper focuses on childhood conduct disorder, attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity and antisocial personality and how they act as factors in predicting a child's future criminal activity. An overview on the disorders is provided, looking into their characteristics, causality, and relationship to crime to provide a complete understanding of the diagnoses.
The difference between young girls and boys and their criminal behavior is also recorded. Different studies are incorporated to display evidence whether or not a child's disorders are prone to development of adult criminality. These disorders are often co-morbid, which means they affect the occurrence of one or the other, and in the instances where a child has more than one disorder, the higher his inclination for adult criminality will be.
Males are more influenced Parenting research papers these disorders than females. Females usually learn to channel their behavioral problems or develop psychological problems or disorders.
In some cases, this means that these women will become criminals. However, this does not mean that every child who is diagnosed with one or more of the disorders mentioned will be a criminal, but the rate of occurrence is significantly high.
Around half or more of these children will commit serious criminal activities and develop arrest records. Conduct Disorder Children with conduct disorder often are also diagnosed with another disorder because the traits of aggression or behavior for each may overlap.
Characteristics of children of this type include but are not limited to bullying, assaults, physical fights, cruelty to animals, arson, shoplifting, and disobedience.
Individuals diagnosed with conduct disorder exhibit neuropsychological deficits. These deficits affect verbal comprehension skills and IQ levels Moffitt, b. These verbal skill deficits include impaired social judgment, weak language processing, and poor auditory memory Moffitt, Conduct disorder often develops into antisocial personality disorder, so it's not surprising that antisocial persons share the same verbal skill deficits.
The deficit in verbal understanding may well be cause for what seems to be impulsivity because the children are more likely to act on their own will when they do not understand what is going on. Delinquent children are shown to consistently score lower on IQ tests than children who are not delinquent.
Attention Deficit Disorders With or Without Hyperactivity Minimal brain dysfunctions, or abnormal cerebral structures, affect people so that they may experience periods of explosive rage that can lead to violent episodes, and thus violent crimes.
These dysfunctions of the brain are typically diagnosed as attention deficit disorders with or without hyperactivity ADHDwhich is another suspected cause of antisocial behavior. In a meta-analysis report by Pratt, Cullen, Blevins, Daigle and Unnever it was written that levels of ADHD among offenders in the criminal justice system is very common.
Furthermore, ADHD is associated with a variety of conditions that are risk factors for offending, including neuropsychological deficits, poor academic and cognitive skills, truancy, psychological problems, and defiance and aggression. Characteristic Traits of ADHD The three main signs of ADHD, is when a child has problems paying attention, is very active, which is called hyperactivity, or acts before thinking, which is impulsivity.
These children have difficulties sitting still, controlling behavior, and paying attention. The first one is the predominantly inattentive type. These children exhibit difficulties with focusing on or following through with school work, organization, paying attention and keeping track of their things American Psychological Association, The second classification is the hyperactive-inattentive type.
Traits for a child with this diagnosis include the tendency to fidget and squirm, have trouble playing quietly, talk too much, staying still, and waiting for their turn to speak in a group APA, The third type is combined, where they exhibit traits from both categories.
All children may be inattentive, overly active, or impulsive but these children persistently act this way. This is known to be true because the disorder has been passed down only between parent and child, but not to an adopted child Pratt et al.
In addition to this genetic influence, environment makes a difference in shaping a child's young mind. In their infancy, their environment consists almost entirely of their parents. Children tend to grow up with similar traits to their parents because at a young age they imitate their parent's behavior.
Some parents may lack the psychological or physical skill to cope and deal with a difficult child, so they respond negatively and impulsively Pratt et al.
Even if the behavior is inappropriate, the child will learn to think it is. In addition to ADHD being a trait that could either be developed in childhood or inherited from one parent or another, antisocial personality is seen shared among children and their parents.
About two-thirds of delinquent boys have fathers with a criminal record. Not only is there a biological influence, but also an environmental one, because young boys look up to their fathers and want to become like them. They see their fathers' antisocial behavior as normal and as a desirable trait to have.
To further back this idea, Ghodsian-Carpey and Baker performed studies on twins four and seven years old.Shared earning/shared parenting marriage, also known as peer marriage, is a type of marriage where the partners at the outset agree to adhere to a model of shared responsibility for earning money, meeting the needs of children, doing household chores, and taking recreation time in near equal fashion across these four domains.
It refers to . Shared earning/shared parenting marriage, also known as peer marriage, is a type of marriage where the partners at the outset agree to adhere to a model of shared responsibility for earning money, meeting the needs of children, doing household chores, and taking recreation time in near equal fashion across these four domains.
It refers to an intact family formed in the relatively equal earning. White, W., Arria, A. & Moe, J. (). Parenting in the context of addiction recovery: Critical research questions. Posted at. regardbouddhiste.com and. Finding a solid topic is one of the most important steps when writing any type of paper.
It can be particularly important when you are writing a psychology research paper or essay. References. L., Marks, “Same-sex parenting and children’s outcomes: A closer examination of the American Psychological Association’s brief on lesbian and gay parenting,” Social Science Research (), Research based parenting for today's growing families.