One informal analysis suggests short first names are strongly correlated with higher salaries. They are bad in several ways, and modern glyphs are little better. For example, v and w, or m and n.
If the risk estimate does not take into account the number of individuals exposed, it is termed an "individual risk" and is in units of incidence rate per a time period. Quantitative risk assessment[ edit ] Further information: Quantitative Risk Assessment software In quantitative risk assessment an annualized loss expectancy Hazards of smoking essay may be used to justify the cost of implementing countermeasures to protect an asset.
This may be calculated by multiplying the single loss expectancy SLEwhich is the loss of value based on a single security incident, with the annualized rate of occurrence AROwhich is an estimate of how often a threat would be successful in exploiting a vulnerability.
The usefulness of quantitative risk assessment has been questioned, however. Barry CommonerBrian Wynne and other critics have expressed concerns that risk assessment tends to be overly quantitative and reductive.
For example, they argue that risk assessments ignore qualitative differences among risks. Some charge that assessments may drop out important non-quantifiable or inaccessible information, such as variations among the classes of people exposed to hazards, or social amplification.
However, in both cases, ability to anticipate future events and create effective strategies for mitigating them when deemed unacceptable is vital. At the individual level, a simple process of identifying objectives and risks, weighing their importance and creating plans, may be all that's necessary.
At the strategic organisational level, more elaborate policies are necessary, specifying acceptable levels of risk, procedures to be followed within the organisation, priorities, and allocation of resources. At the dynamic level, the personnel directly involved may be required to deal with unforeseen problems in real time.
The tactical decisions made at this level should be reviewed after the operation to provide feedback on the effectiveness of both the planned procedures and decisions made in response to the contingency. The first step in risk assessment is to establish the context.
This restricts the range of hazards to be considered. This is followed by identification of visible and implied hazards that may threaten the project, and determining the qualitative nature of the potential adverse consequences of each hazard.
Without a potential adverse consequence, there is no hazard. It is also necessary to identify the potential parties or assets which may be affected by the threat, and the potential consequences to them if the hazard is activated. If the consequences are dependent on dose, i.
This is the general case for many health hazards where the mechanism of injury is toxicity or repetitive injury, particularly where the effect is cumulative. For other hazards, the consequences may either occur or not, and the severity may be extremely variable even when the triggering conditions are the same.
This is typical of many biological hazards as well as a large range of safety hazards. Exposure to a pathogen may or may not result in actual infection, and the consequences of infection may also be variable. Similarly a fall from the same place may result in minor injury or death, depending on unpredictable details.
In these cases estimates must be made of reasonably likely consequences and associated probability of occurrence. In cases where statistical records are available they may be used to evaluate risk, but in many cases there are no data or insufficient data available to be useful.
Mathematical or experimental models may provide useful input. The complexity of this step in many contexts derives mainly from the need to extrapolate results from experimental animals e. In addition, the differences between individuals due to genetics or other factors mean that the hazard may be higher for particular groups, called susceptible populations.
An alternative to dose-response estimation is to determine a concentration unlikely to yield observable effects, that is, a no effect concentration.
In developing such a dose, to account for the largely unknown effects of animal to human extrapolations, increased variability in humans, or missing data, a prudent approach is often adopted by including safety or uncertainty factors in the estimate of the "safe" dose, typically a factor of 10 for each unknown step.
Exposure Quantification, aims to determine the amount of a contaminant dose that individuals and populations will receive, either as a contact level e. This is done by examining the results of the discipline of exposure assessment.
As different location, lifestyles and other factors likely influence the amount of contaminant that is received, a range or distribution of possible values is generated in this step. Particular care is taken to determine the exposure of the susceptible population s. The results of these steps are combined to produce an estimate of risk.
Because of the different susceptibilities and exposures, this risk will vary within a population. An uncertainty analysis is usually included in a health risk assessment. Dynamic risk assessment[ edit ] During an emergency response, the situation and hazards are often inherently less predictable than for planned activities non-linear.
In general, if the situation and hazards are predictable linearstandard operating procedures should deal with them adequately. In some emergencies this may also hold true, with the prepared and trained responses being adequate to manage the situation. In these situations, the operator can manage risk without outside assistance, or with the assistance of a backup team who are prepared and available to step in at short notice.
Other emergencies occur where there is no previously planned protocol, or when an outsider group is brought in to handle the situation, and they are not specifically prepared for the scenario that exists but must deal with it without undue delay. Examples include police, fire department, disaster response and other public service rescue teams.
In these cases ongoing risk assessment by the involved personnel can advise appropriate action to reduce risk.Misc thoughts, memories, proto-essays, musings, etc.
And on that dread day, the Ineffable One will summon the artificers and makers of graven images, and He will command them to give life to their creations, and failing, they and their creations will be dedicated to the flames. Professional chemists will be m ore precise and say that fluorine is the most “electronegative” element, meaning that it is the most aggressive electron “thief,” because the alkali metals are the most “electropositive” elements, meaning their affinity to “give away” an electron, and electronegativity and electropositivity are not easy to compare, as far as “reactivity” goes.
Smoking is the term that is generally defined in context of inhaling tobacco when it is burnt. It is practiced in several forms, viz. Cigarette, Cigar, Hookahs, Bidi, vaporizers etc.
It is a known. Quitting smoking can be very daunting, but some of the benefits come much faster than anticipated. In fact, health benefits begin to take effect just one hour after a person has smoked their last. Read this essay on Smoking Hazards.
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