Though the styles of Northern artists vary according to geography, one characteristic that is fundamental to all northern art of this period is a fondness for meticulous rendering of details. In addition, there is generally less of the classical ideal apparent in the figures which can be partly explained by their lack of access to Greek and Roman statues. Instead, remnants of Gothic influences are apparent in their compositions. The picture is a triptych, composed in three hinged panels the outer wings can be closed over the middle panel, and probably has another painting on the closed wings.
Byzantium, later known as Constantinople and more recently as Istanbul, was the gateway between Asia and Europe. As a consequence of its location, Byzantine art evolved as a cultural mix of styles from the east and west.
Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire after the conversion of Constantine and it was the duty of the Emperor to unite the faith across the empire by bringing the various heretical groups into line and standardizing Christian teaching.
Therefore the form of Byzantine art was strictly controlled to eliminate any personalized or unorthodox interpretation of its imagery. Its fixed conventions were a reflection of the unalterable nature of Christian teaching. The three main forms of Byzantine art were the large scale mosaics used to decorate the walls and interior domes of Byzantine churches, the smaller scale religious icons which were portable panel paintings of Christ and the Blessed Virgin, and the illuminated manuscripts from the Gospels and other religious texts.
Byzantine figures were stylized in a frontal and symbolic format, inviting spiritual worship and offering protection to the devout.The term ìthe Renaissanceî is associated with the artistic bounty of Italyóbut the massive cultural transformations remaking the world were affecting art throughout northern Europe as well.
In The Art of the Northern Renaissance, Professor Catherine Scallen leads an intensely visual exploration using more than imagesópaintings, woodcuts, engravings, etchings, sculptures, drawingsóby. According to Alberti's system all parts of a picture have a rational relationship with each other and to the spectator, for the distance the latter is to stand from the painting is controlled by the artist when organizing his perspective construction.
The Northern Renaissance refers to the Renaissance outside of Italy but within Europe. Typically the main centre's for art included the Netherlands, Germany and France and all of these countries have become known by the collective name of Northern (North of Italy).
Overview. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern regardbouddhiste.coming in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.
The Black Death in Europe, from its arrival in through successive waves into the early modern period, has been seriously misunderstood by historians. A major factor separating Middle English from Modern English is known as the Great Vowel Shift, a radical change in pronunciation during the 15th, 16th and 17th Century, as a result of which long vowel sounds began to be made higher and further forward in the .