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Summary[ edit ] The main ideas of Discipline and Punish can be grouped according to its four parts: These examples provide a picture of just how profound the changes in western penal systems were after less than a century. Foucault wants the reader to consider what led to these changes and how Western attitudes shifted so radically.
Foucault wants to tie scientific knowledge and technological development to the development of the prison to prove this point. He defines a "micro-physics" of power, which is constituted by a power that is strategic and tactical rather than acquired, preserved or possessed.
He explains that power and knowledge imply one another, as opposed to the common belief that knowledge exists independently of power relations knowledge is always contextualized in a framework which makes it intelligible, so the humanizing discourse of psychiatry is an expression of the tactics of oppression.
In What is an Author? Foucault also deals with notion of identity, and its use as a method of control, regulation, and tracking. He argues that the public spectacle of torture and execution was a theatrical forum, the original intentions of which eventually produced several unintended consequences.
Foucault stresses the exactitude with which torture is carried out, and describes an extensive legal framework in which it operates to achieve specific purposes.
Foucault describes public torture as ceremony. The intended purposes were: To make the secret public according to Foucault the investigation was kept entirely secret even from the accused. The secret of the investigation and the conclusion of the magistrates was justified by the publicity of the torture.
To show the effect of investigation on confession. According to Foucault torture could occur during the investigation, because partial proofs meant partial guilt.
If the torture failed to elicit a confession then the investigation was stopped and innocence assumed. A confession legitimized the investigation and any torture that occurred.
It also made the body of the condemned man the place where the vengeance of the sovereign was applied, the anchoring point for a manifestation of power, an opportunity of affirming the dissymmetry of forces. Crime and rebellion are akin to a declaration of war. The sovereign was not concerned with demonstrating the ground for the enforcement of its laws, but of identifying enemies and attacking them, the power of which was renewed by the ritual of investigation and the ceremony of public torture.
Foucault notes that public executions often led to riots in support of the prisoner. Frustration for the inefficiency of this economy of power could be directed towards and coalesce around the site of torture and execution.
Torture was made public in order to create fear in the people, and to force them to participate in the method of control by agreeing with its verdicts. But problems arose in cases in which the people through their actions disagreed with the sovereign, by heroizing the victim admiring the courage in facing death or in moving to physically free the criminal or to redistribute the effects of the strategically deployed power.
Thus, he argues, the public execution was ultimately an ineffective use of the body, qualified as non-economical.
As well, it was applied non-uniformly and haphazardly. Hence, its political cost was too high. It was the antithesis of the more modern concerns of the state: So it had to be reformed to allow for greater stability of property for the bourgeoisie.
Punishment[ edit ] Firstly, the switch to prison was not immediate and sudden. There was a more graded change, though it ran its course rapidly. Prison was preceded by a different form of public spectacle. The theater of public torture gave way to public chain gangs.Critical Responses to Crime and Punishment The liberal and radical critics objected fiercely to Dostoevsky's portrayal of Raskolnikov, the main character of the novel.
These critics commonly affirmed that in Raskolnikov, Dostoevsky had affronted all students, and that the character was a madman whom Dostoevsky attempted to portray as typical of. Free Example of Descriptive Sample essay on Psychological and biological theories of crime in criminology.
A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah Dostoevsky Sonia in Crime and Punishment and Gretchen in Faust Critical Comparison Sonia from Dostoevsky’s Crime and Punishment (C & P) and Margaret (Gretchen) from Goethe’s Faust are the leading female characters in the works they are portrayed in.
Aside from this obvious connection, Sonia and Gretchen have a variety of characteristics in common. Critical essay of crime and punishment. 5 stars based on reviews sonnenallee film analysis essay social anthropology essay cadbury dairy milk advertisement analysis essay pre 20th century essays on abortion.
Capital punishment pros and cons research paper. Capital punishment -- the death penalty Basic reasons that people give to support or oppose the death penalty.
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