An established and balanced ecosystem functions in a dynamic symbiosis. All species interact with each other in three possible ways: A mutualistic relationship helps both organisms. A communalistic relationship neither helps nor harms the interacting organisms.
Overview[ edit ] The concept of nature as a standard by which to make judgments is traditionally said to have begun in Greek philosophyat least as regards the Western and Middle Eastern languages and perspectives which are heavily influenced by it.
By this account, human nature really causes humans to become what they become, and so it exists somehow independently of individual humans. This in turn has been understood as also showing a special connection between human nature and divinity.
This approach understands human nature in terms of final and formal causes. In other words, nature itself or a nature-creating divinity has intentions and goals, similar somehow to human intentions and goals, and one of those goals is humanity living naturally. Such understandings of human nature see this nature as an "idea", or " form " of a human.
Against this idea of a fixed human nature, the relative malleability of man has been argued especially strongly in recent centuries—firstly by early modernists such as Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Still more recent scientific perspectives—such as behaviorismdeterminismand the chemical model within modern psychiatry and psychology —claim to be neutral regarding human nature. As in much of modern science, such disciplines seek to explain with little or no recourse to metaphysical causation.
Classical Greek philosophy[ edit ] Main article: According to Aristotlethe philosophical study of human nature itself originated with Socrateswho turned philosophy from study of the heavens to study of the human things.
The Socratic school was the dominant surviving influence in philosophical discussion in the Middle Agesamongst IslamicChristianand Jewish philosophers. The human soul in the works of Plato and Aristotle has a divided nature, divided in a specifically human way.
One part is specifically human and rational, and divided into a part which is rational on its own, and a spirited part which can understand reason. Other parts of the soul are home to desires or passions similar to those found in animals.
In both Aristotle and Plato, spiritedness thumos is distinguished from the other passions epithumiai. In his works, apart from using a similar scheme of a divided human soul, some clear statements about human nature are made: Man is a conjugal animal, meaning an animal which is born to couple when an adult, thus building a household oikos and, in more successful cases, a clan or small village still run upon patriarchal lines.
This type of community is different in kind from a large family, and requires the special use of human reason. Man loves to use his imagination and not only to make laws and run town councils. He says "we enjoy looking at accurate likenesses of things which are themselves painful to see, obscene beasts, for instance, and corpses.
However, the particular teleological idea that humans are "meant" or intended to be something has become much less popular in modern times. Aristotle developed the standard presentation of this approach with his theory of four causes.The philosophical tradition that traces back to Aristotle employs the idea of nature to explain that which defines the essence of a thing.
One of the most fundamental metaphysical concepts, the essence indicates those properties that define what a thing is. The Philosophy of War. Any philosophical examination of war will center on four general questions: What is war? What causes war? What is the relationship between human nature and war?
On the Overwhelming Importance of the Far Future - Nick Beckstead PhD Thesis. Department of Philosophy, Rutgers University (): Argues that from a global perspective, what matters most (in expectation) is that we do what is best (in expectation) for the general trajectory along which our descendants develop over the coming .
In sustainability science calls are increasing for humanity to (re-)connect with nature, yet no systematic synthesis of the empirical literature on human–nature . Philosophy of human nature: Philosophy of Education: Jean-Jacques Rousseau (French, ; Enlightenment Era) The Social Contract; Emile Society has a corrupting influence on the individual.
“Natural” cultures are superior to the complexities of highly civilized ones. Rousseau was also the first developmental stage theorist. A Return to Innocence: Philosophical Guidance in an Age of Cynicism [Jeffrey M. Schwartz, Annie Gottlieb] on regardbouddhiste.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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